IELTS Writing Task 2 Sample 167 - Should governments spend more money on improving roads and highways
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IELTS Writing Task 2/ IELTS Essay:
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Should governments spend more money on improving roads and highways, or should governments spend more money on improving public transportation (buses, trains, subways)? Why?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.
You should write at least 250 words.
Model Answer 1:
People have argued about how the government should utilise their budgets on transportation areas. Some people think that the government should spend more money on developing streets and highways, while others believe that improving public transportations is the most important one. The following essay will discuss in details about it, but I do believe that both aspects are important and should be proportionately improved.
On the one hand, a group of people think that the government should focus on improving their street, road and highway facilities. They believe that public accesses are vital for the economic development of the respective country. Without the existence of qualified roads and highways, it will be difficult for industries to grow, as there will be some obstacles for the supply of raw materials and deliveries of goods. Consequently, it will impact on the efficiency of many companies and also to the government's income tax.
On the other hand, other people think governments should spend more budgets on improving and maintaining public transportation such as buses, trains, aeroplanes and ferries. They believe that if the government could improve the quality of these mass transportation facilities, it will reduce traffic and air pollution problems. As public transportations become more convenient and safe, more people will use them, and it will gradually reduce the number of private vehicle users. As a consequent, it will reduce traffic congestion and reduce air pollution as well.
In conclusion, I personally believe that the government's spending on public accesses and transportations are both essentials. And it becomes the government's task to allocate those budgets proportionately for both areas since we could not focus on one area and abandoned the other. It would be useless for a country to have good public transportations, without the support of good roads and highways.
(Written by - Darwin )
Model Answer 2:
Many people believe that governments should spend more money on improving roads and highways. However, other people think that more money should be spent on improving public transportation. Personally, I think that both of these opinions have their advantages and disadvantages.
The first reason for improving public transportation is overpopulation. The number of cars is rising dramatically. As a result of this fact, the contemplation of air is increasing that leads to irreversible aftereffects such as the presence of acid rains and different kinds of human diseases. So, the improving of public transportation will reduce pollution. The second reason for this is the possibility to decrease the amount of traffic jam that also has a huge influence on air pollution. Moreover, it will save time and people's money. One does not have to pay for gas for his car, car insurance, repair, oil change and etc. The third reason for this is a sharp decrease in the level of car accidents. People will feel more secure in this case. Road accidents have become a violent issue and people feel that the Government should do something to reduce the accidents happening on the roads daily.
However, despite all these advantages, this decision has a few disadvantages. First of all, public transportation means the presence of schedule and working hours. So, one has to wait for a bus or for a train in a subway or call for a taxi in order to get somewhere. Second of all, it is a big chance that one has to spend some time getting to the nearest bus stop or subway entrance.
As for roads and highways,I think it is a very important and topical issue. A personal car in this modern world is an essential vehicle. It gives one freedom and independence. Improving roads and highways governments will decrease the number of car accidents and traffic jams. I believe that in several years air pollution can be dramatically reduced by using solar energy to refuel our cars.
Finally, I think that governments should spend money on improving public transportation as well as on roads and highways because it will benefit all people.
(This model answer has been prepared by the site developer. However, please note that this is just one example out of many possible answers.)
While getting started can be very difficult, finishing an essay is usually quite straightforward. By the time you reach the end you will already know what the main points of the essay are, so it will be easy for you to write a summary of the essay and finish with some kind of final comment, which are the two components of a good conclusion. An example essay has been given below to help you understand both of these, and there is a checklist at the end which you can use for editing your conclusion.
In short, the concluding paragraph consists of the following two parts:
It is important, at the end of the essay, to summarise the main points. If your thesis statement is detailed enough, then your summary can just be a restatement of your thesis using different words. The summary should include all the main points of the essay, and should begin with a suitable transition signal. You should not add any new information at this point.
The following is an example of a summary for a short essay on cars (given below):
In conclusion, while the car is advantageous for its convenience, it has some important disadvantages, in particular the pollution it causes and the rise of traffic jams.
Although this summary is only one sentence long, it contains the main (controlling) ideas from all three paragraphs in the main body. It also has a clear transition signal ('In conclusion') to show that this is the end of the essay.
Once the essay is finished and the writer has given a summary, there should be some kind of final comment about the topic. This should be related to the ideas is in the main body. Your final comment might:
Here is an example of a final comment for the essay on cars:
If countries can invest in the development of technology for green fuels, and if car owners can think of alternatives such as car sharing, then some of these problems can be lessened.
This final comment offers solutions, and is related to the ideas in the main body. One of the disadvantages in the body was pollution, so the writer suggests developing 'green fuels' to help tackle this problem. The second disadvantage was traffic congestion, and the writer again suggests a solution, 'car sharing'. By giving these suggestions related to the ideas in the main body, the writer has brought the essay to a successful close.
Below is a discussion essay which looks at the advantages and disadvantages of car ownership. This essay is used throughout the essay writing section to help you understand different aspects of essay writing. Here it focuses on the summary and final comment of the conclusion (mentioned on this page), the thesis statement and general statements of the introduction, and topic sentences and controlling ideas. Click on the different areas (in the shaded boxes to the right) to highlight the different structural aspects in this essay.
Although they were invented almost a hundred years ago, for decades cars were only owned by the rich. Since the 60s and 70s they have become increasingly affordable, and now most families in developed nations, and a growing number in developing countries, own a car.While cars have undoubted advantages, of which their convenience is the most apparent, they have significant drawbacks, most notably pollution and traffic problems.
The most striking advantage of the car is its convenience. When travelling long distance, there may be only one choice of bus or train per day, which may be at an unsuitable time. The car, however, allows people to travel at any time they wish, and to almost any destination they choose.
Despite this advantage, cars have many significant disadvantages, the most important of which is the pollution they cause. Almost all cars run either on petrol or diesel fuel, both of which are fossil fuels. Burning these fuels causes the car to emit serious pollutants, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide. Not only are these gases harmful for health, causing respiratory disease and other illnesses, they also contribute to global warming, an increasing problem in the modern world. According to the Union of Concerned Scientists (2013), transportation in the US accounts for 30% of all carbon dioxide production in that country, with 60% of these emissions coming from cars and small trucks. In short, pollution is a major drawback of cars.
A further disadvantage is the traffic problems that they cause in many cities and towns of the world. While car ownership is increasing in almost all countries of the world, especially in developing countries, the amount of available roadway in cities is not increasing at an equal pace. This can lead to traffic congestion, in particular during the morning and evening rush hour. In some cities, this congestion can be severe, and delays of several hours can be a common occurrence. Such congestion can also affect those people who travel out of cities at the weekend. Spending hours sitting in an idle car means that this form of transport can in fact be less convenient than trains or aeroplanes or other forms of public transport.
In conclusion, while the car is advantageous for its convenience, it has some important disadvantages, in particular the pollution it causes and the rise of traffic jams. If countries can invest in the development of technology for green fuels, and if car owners can think of alternatives such as car sharing, then some of these problems can be lessened.
Union of Concerned Scientists (2013). Car Emissions and Global Warming.www.ucsusa.org/clean vehicles/why-clean-cars/global-warming/ (Access date: 8 August, 2013)
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Below is a checklist for an essay conclusion. Use it to check your own writing, or get a peer (another student) to help you.
|The conclusion begins with a suitable transition signal (e.g. 'In conclusion...', 'To summarise...', 'In sum...')|
|The conclusion has a summary of the main ideas|
|The conclusion ends with a final comment (the writer's idea or a recommendation)|
Find out how to improve the cohesion of your writing.
Go back to the previous section about the main body of an essay.