ABORTION ESSAY WRITING GUIDE
December 22, 2016>
Abortion is a rather popular topic of discussion. It is a rather sensitive and arguable subject and, therefore, it has a great variety of forms of debate on the issue, as well as various types of essays on it. This article is devoted to the comprehensive reviewing of different types of essays on the topic and providing the reader with relevant information on the most popular types of essays on abortion, including the description of each type, structure, outline, instructions, examples and other useful information.
Argumentative essay on Abortion
An argumentative essay implies establishing a certain position on a chosen, often controversial topic, and persuading the audience with help of pieces of evidence and facts supporting a certain point of view. Firstly, there should be done some research on several sides of the argument in order to collect certain facts, statements of experts, and statistics to support the chosen stance. These steps should be carefully considered before working on the outline of a future essay. When topic and fundamental position on the topic are chosen, the writer should put together an outline in order to substantiate his/her point of view with a sophisticated structure of the essay. The outline should comprise an introduction, a thesis, several pieces of evidence for each argument, refutation of the opposing viewpoint, and conclusion. The structure of the argumentative essay is rather clear, but still, you may have many questions on how to write an argumentative essay about abortion.
It is a rather sensitive topic with polar opinions on abortion itself. Some people reckon it’s a crime, and other consider it to be a free choice of each person. The most significant part of the writing is not to make some statements, but make a research on each and every statement and back up these arguments by facts and pieces of evidence. However, the first step to start from would be defining the topic. Basically, there is plenty of possible topics regarding this theme, but most of them usually come down to one issue on either side. Argumentative essay topics on abortion highlight the problem in terms of pro-life arguments (against this procedure), and pro-choice arguments (for legalization). While doing a thorough research, it is required to dig through opinions of professionals and recent statistics. It is important to be absolutely objective while writing this type of essay; you cannot just think out a fact or evidence which are not backed up by grounded research or a recognized expert. You should consider both aspects of the controversial topic and put the essay together so that it is highlighted in terms of two opposite opinions at a time. Such essays should include arguments in support of one side of the issue in conjunction with opposite opinion on this topic.
For instance, in the argumentative essay on why abortion should be illegal, the writer should make emphasis on four to five basic arguments, strengthened by facts and pieces of evidence. Taking a position on pro-life arguments, you can state that fetuses are human beings and are capable of feeling pain, and later support this statement with numerous pieces of evidence. The 4d scans, in this case, can serve as a proof, and if you look at snapshots, you can notice that after 12 weeks, fetuses are formed human beings, they have eyes and fingers, heart and a nervous system. By 8 weeks’ gestation period, a fetus can already flex its spine, which can indicate that it is already able to feel pain because the nervous system is already formed for it.
This argument should be followed by three or four strong corresponding arguments; for example, the second argument could be that this procedure can evoke medical complications and psychological trauma for women, and the third point can be religious responsibility; the fourth can defend human rights. You can divide your paper into four or five equal parts and just fill in the sections with the necessary content. You can put these arguments in the outline for argumentative essay on abortion in advance, in order to mitigate the writing process. Along with the arguments, which are the main body of the essay, the outline comprises introduction that gives a short information about the topic you work on and a thesis on this topic that come before the main body. If the topic is “Why abortion should be illegal”, introduce the issue in general, write a bit about it and explain your position in thesis by saying why you think that it should be illegal.
For example, it should be illegal, because fetus is a human being, and this procedure can be viewed as a murder. All this should be mentioned in the introduction paragraph for abortion essay. After introducing a general information on the topic and a certain thesis on the issue, you can start presenting the abovementioned arguments and continue with the refutation of opposing views. In this case, you should write why you think those who claim that it should be legal are wrong. For example, you can provide a couple of counterarguments of the opposite point of view. In this case, you can say that there are cases of unwanted pregnancy, but there are many families who struggle with a misery of infertility, who are willing to adopt a child. This will make your essay credible and objective because you will acknowledge the opposite arguments and mentioning them will make your statements even stronger.
After the main body is completed, you can start finalizing your argumentative essay on abortion. Conclusion should summarize all given arguments and counterarguments and leave readers with something to think about. For example, you can weigh out and assess all the particular cases and possible exceptions, when it might be an option to find way out of a really heartbreaking and difficult situation, and mention that these cases are not considered in this discussion, focus on the easy access to the discussed procedure and try putting doubt in the necessity of making it a fundamental human right. The same structure of the essay can be used in an argumentative essay on why abortion should be legal. Before starting to write about the topic in terms of pro-choice arguments, try to investigate the subject again and conduct a thorough research of the existing reliable sources, including articles, books, experts’ opinions, statistical data, historical reviews of the problem, facts, etc. Make sure that you have enough pieces of evidence to support your position and enough counterarguments to refute the opposite point of view. In order to organize the information, you have to compose an abortion essay outline. You may again recollect that there should be an introduction, in which you can mention that it should be a legal option for everyone, because nobody has right to interfere with someone’s life decisions, that illegal procedures will take place regardless the government’s provision and can result in more problems, and other corresponding ideas supporting abortion. Introduction paragraph may be followed by the pro-choice arguments, which are to be presented in the main body. Two opposite views of the issue should collide and they both should reflect the existing problems in terms of religion, law, morality, medicine, demography, human rights, and personal choice. You can write that fetuses are not yet human beings, that government has no right to decide anything related to the women’s bodies, that it is dangerous to make it illegal as it will provoke making this procedure by amateurs, and it can result in numerous deaths of women, etc.
You are welcome to continue your essay with the abortion counter arguments based on the opponents’ views. It is a really complicated question for discussion as it involves different aspects of life. A lot of factors should be taken into consideration while taking a decision about the age of the women, their financial stability and stability in their relationships. This encompasses certain layers of society: teenagers, unmarried and poor women. Morality is a subject of personal interpretation, and there can be different points of view in terms of morality regarding this issue. There are also many illnesses that may lead to birth defects, and such maternal illnesses can also be reviewed in your essay. Heart and kidney diseases, severe diabetes and other illnesses in conjunction with pregnancy and delivery can lead to irreversible complications and even death of a newborn. You can sum up all the above mentioned facts in conclusion for abortion essay. According to statistics, 51% of parents used contraceptives, but nevertheless, women got pregnant. It is significant to mention that there are cases of rape or incest, and women have no desire to give birth to unwanted children.
Basically, an argumentative essay should consist of pros and cons of your assertion on the debating issue. A good essay should combine different elements that will convince everybody to perceive the subject from your perspective. And it is significant to have strong arguments on the opposite point of view to parry it effectively. It is the essay in which you give arguments for and against abortion. We have also prepared the following plan you can stick to when working on your essay:The Pro-Con pattern should consist of introduction, pro-point 1 + support, pro-point 2 + support, con point + refutation, and conclusion.
- The Con-Pro pattern should contain: introduction, con-point + refutation, pro-point 1 + support, pro-point 2 + support, and conclusion.
- 3-Con pattern: introduction, con-point 1 + refutation, con-point 2 + refutation, con-point 3 + refutation, conclusion. All these three patterns are recommended for short argumentative essay on abortion.
- Claim/Counterclaim pattern. It consists of the introduction, two parts of the main body and conclusion. The first part includes three parts with counterclaim points with refutations, and the second part with three claim points and supporting arguments. The paper should include introduction, counterclaim (cc) point 1 + refutation, cc 2 + refutation, cc 3 + refutation, claim point 1 + support, claim point 2 + support, claim point 3 + support, and conclusion.
- Alternating pattern: introduction, three body parts (claim point 1 + support, counterclaim point 1 + support), and conclusion.
The last two patterns are intended for advanced college writing and are not recommended for a short argumentative essay on abortion. Don’t forget to support your opinion with facts, logical explanations and well-known experts’ opinions. It is also important to distinguish the notions to refute (prove that the point is incorrect) and to rebut (prove that the point is irrelevant or not strong enough) them. You can use both methods to parry the counterclaim. Before submitting your paper, you should make sure that it is completed correctly not only in terms of structure but that it also complies with all necessary requirements: title page, formatting style, citations and references, spelling and grammar. Even though you now have a comprehensive description of how to write an argumentative essay on abortion, you may still need more additional information about it. Maybe you will need some ready works to start your own research or for comparison to make sure that you composed your paper correctly.
For this purpose, you can search for the materials online or call upon the assistance of mates or professionals. There is no need to think out something that is not already represented on the web, and you definitely don’t need to reinvent the wheel. You can easily find an argumentative essay on abortion sample and compose your own in accordance with the already existing material. If you dig into the debating issue, you will find out a wide range of claims and counterclaims regarding it. And maybe the hardest part of writing will be taking a certain stand on the matter. For example, if you take a glance on the problem from a distance in terms of different countries and decades, different social layers and life circumstances, it will be even harder to provide the final assertion. For instance, abortion is legalized only in 30 countries of the world, and other countries restrict or partially allow abortion. There are many historical, social, legal, religious, moral, medical peculiarities and aspects that can be discussed in this kind of paper, and examples of argumentative essays on abortion can become a good guide if you are given a task to write a paper on this topic.
Such examples can give a certain direction and indicate the right steps to the proper highlighting of the debating issue. They can be helpful in reviewing the issue from the perspective of multidimensional and complex discussion, covering the holistic picture of the problem. They can show some questions that can be mentioned in the paper and can become of interest to the audience. You can easily find free argumentative essays on abortion on the Internet. However, due to the modern technologies, it becomes even a hard task to miss any necessary facts, opinions of experts and logical explanations. One may need to make an effort not to notice a corresponding information. Sometimes, it is not the lack of information, but the lack of time that plays a major role in the process of writing.
Therefore, there is a great variety of different materials on the web that may provide you with a great scope of new information on the subject. You can easily find free argumentative essays on abortion that can save your time in research and make your own writing full of bright and up-to-date pieces of evidence, facts, opinions of well-known authorities and logical explanations. Sometimes, it is more effective to invest your time in the reviewing of already completed papers in order to systemize your own thoughts about the debating issue, to look at the problem holistically and to find the necessary strategy of the upcoming work. No matter what position you have taken, you can find argumentative essay on abortion examples on both opinions with equally powerful arguments. Surely, you can dedicate your time and effort to reading books and articles in scientific papers. But on the other hand, to save your time, you can just check the reliability of the sources provided in already written papers and confidently use the rendered information.
Argumentative essay examples on abortion can come in handy at every stage of the writing process. With help of examples, you can compare your final paper and check if there is something else to be mentioned, whether you’ve missed some strong arguments to maximally get close to the full and objective picture of the problem. For example, some good points are mental and physical illnesses of potential mothers, genetic diseases of the fetus, countries where giving birth is heavily controlled by government and having more than two children is strongly discouraged, personal responsibility of each adult, potential risk of infertility after abortion procedure, etc. An argumentative essay on pros and cons of abortion should be elaborated, the arguments should be reasonable, evidence has to be solid, statistic data needs to be accurate, all expert opinions are to be recognized, sources must be reliable, and all logical explanations should be consequent.
Our tips on how to write an argumentative essay about abortion
TIP 1 – Search
Before you start writing an argumentative essay on abortion, the most important thing you should do is search for information. If you are about to open a new tab, stop for a moment and think about the books, articles in scientific papers and another kind of reliable sources that can be used. Even though it takes more time to find the information there, you can be sure that it is not made up. Afterward, you will be able to understand what kind of information from the Internet is not a complete fiction.
TIP 2- Don’t rush
Do you think you have gathered all the information you need and you are ready to write? The answer is a huge NO. Your desire to start writing is a good sign but be sure that you understand the concept of your future essay. Look through the notes and you will totally find at least a few that you don’t need or that were accidentally duplicated. Also, reading the material again may give you an idea of intro you want or will motivate you to do more searching.
TIP 3 – Strong intro.
It is always hard to start writing an argumentative essay. You want the words to lie perfectly on the paper and actually make sense, but sometimes (ok, let’s stop lying, almost every single time) you feel like a five-year-old trying to write a dissertation. Just face the fact: staring at the blank paper as if you have never seen one before will not help. Look at the first sentence of this article. Now you can legally steal it to start your paper. Add some information about political and moral aspects of the question. Try to avoid writing anything about religion and its role in a variety of disputes around the topic at first, as this may annoy some readers. You can always get to it later if you have such a need. Anyway, do your best to ensure the reader that you are taking this topic seriously. One of the best ways to do this is bringing up the statistics. Try to find a trustworthy source that will give you some real numbers and make it look interesting and convincing in the essay.
TIP 4 – Facts, facts and even more facts.
As in every essay, there are two opposite sides, and you need to describe both of them with no bias. Note that it is an argumentative essay, so clean your mind and try to remember only solid facts. Even if you don’t like the argument, because it proves the point of view you do not support, don’t try and twist it, as that will only show your unprofessional approach.
TIP 5 – Apply your knowledge
As you can now produce two completely different points of view, it is time to start writing the heart of an argumentative essay – the main part. This tip includes a lot of information, so read carefully.
Let’s start this part of an argumentative essay on abortion with pro-choice. This is when you need to look at a question from a point of view of a pregnant woman. Most of the resources suggest “my body – my choice” to be the strongest argument ever. But be careful writing this as there is an answer that can knock you out at once – the fetus is not actually your body. It is better to start with some medical facts about why pregnancy termination can or should be legal. Don’t be afraid to support your arguments with the actual numbers, but try not to cross the line, when there is only some raw statistics. Here are the most common situations, when a woman either wants or needs to have an abortion:
- There is a high risk of death while giving birth either for the woman or the fetus. Note that reasons may vary: sicknesses, traumas, etc.
- The fetus might have a genetic disease or any other anomaly, so that it will suffer after the birth.
- The woman was raped or it was incest. In both of the cases woman suffers a high level of stress and giving birth will definitely not reduce it.
- Mental illness. A mentally ill person cannot take a proper care of a baby or give birth safely. Besides, the disease can be passed to the child.
- The woman is too young to be a parent, has no financial resources or the child is unwanted. If she gives birth, there is a high possibility that a child will end up being uneducated, with no opportunities for the future, in jail or even dead at the early age.
- A fetus becomes an actual person when it has an independent body. This is one of the arguments that proves abortion is not a murder.
- A fetus will not feel pain if removed early (mainly, if a woman uses pills or any other non-surgical methods), so it’s only about the woman to choose.
- Women can get pregnant even using contraceptives. So it is not about her being irresponsible.
- Population control. Well, it is a common fact that the world is overpopulated, so there is no need to make the situation worse. This argument sounds pretty rude, even though it is true, but still be careful on this one.
This list is just an example, as it does not cover the wide range of arguments that may be given. Hopefully, everything above is pretty understandable so let’s get to the next part of our argumentative essay that is against abortion aka pro-life. It is important to understand that now you need to look at the situation differently, which is considering a murder. If you want to get more into it, try to read the stories of abortion survivors, they may not change your mind if you are pro-choice, but you will definitely shed a tear.
You may use a similar advice here regarding medicine and statistics. Therefore, here are the examples of the pro-life arguments:
- Serious risks during and after procedure: bleeding, damage of cervix or a womb, ectopic pregnancy and even infertility.
- Abortion is a serious stress for a woman’s body and mind. Firstly, many of them regret not giving a birth, and that usually results in depression. Also, there is a higher possibility to get a breast cancer after aborting a baby.
- Many families want to have children but have problems conceiving it. A woman may not abort a baby but give it for adoption so other people can care about it.
- Many women are just being irresponsible by not using contraception. This is a very unfortunate fact, but in many cases, women abort babies just because they don’t use anything to protect themselves from getting pregnant.
- Baby feels the pain while being aborted. There is no common opinion in how many weeks exactly baby starts feeling pain and no doctor will give you the right answer, but when aborted late – it certainly does.
- Baby is alive inside the mother, so as every being it has its rights. If killing a small child or even kicking a pregnant woman in a stomach is a crime, then why it is ok to kill a child that is growing and functioning with a help of his mother?
- In most religions, abortion is a huge sin. This argument is weak if thrown into the atheist’s face, but in other cases, it is pretty effective.
- Aborting a baby is a proof, that human life means nothing. That is where you can turn on your inner philosopher and think deeply about this, but try to stick to the topic.
TIP 6 – Choose the side.
This is the part, where you have enough information to decide whether you are pro-choice or pro-life. Usually, before you even start writing, you know what side you are on. However, in the very beginning, when you just search for the information, you can find the material you have never seen before, and it may completely change your mind and make you rethink many controversial questions that you have had. So at this point, try to be sure which opinion you really support. You may want to reread what you have written so far to understand the choice you make. As you are close to finishing your argumentative essay, be precise about what you want to say. Make reader understand exactly why you support this side. Don’t mention every argument from the main part of an essay, bring something special and original into the explanation.
Persuasive essay on Abortion
Persuasive essay is an essay where you try to convince everybody who reads the paper that a certain idea, which is discussed in it, is absolutely right. It is your opinion on a particular subject that you believe is 100% right. For example, you may want to persuade your boss to raise your salary or to be promoted. It is very useful to enhance your ability to prove your stance, to persuade a reader to take your side or even to change his/her point of view. The task is to show a topic from another angle, so that a reader could change his/her opinion.
Persuasive essays on abortion can highlight the topic from two main sides. In order to start writing it, you should define the position you take on a chosen subject. Decide on the thesis that will perfectly match your arguments. It should be a strong stance expressed in a short assertion, which comes down to one sentence. For example, after making a thorough research on the issue, after checking a variety of reliable sources, opinions of experts and statistical data, you may decide that it is a bad idea, and later you can decide to write a persuasive essay on why abortion should be illegal. As a thesis, you can write that it should be illegal because a fetus is a human being, and it is considered to be a murder, and therefore, abortion is a crime.
When writing this type of an essay, start each paragraph with a mini-thesis statement. It will make your paper cohesive and will support your position accordingly, making it stronger with every paragraph. It is not only important to have your own opinion on the issue, but also to be able to express your beliefs consequently and professionally. Therefore, it is important to know how to write a persuasive essay on abortion correctly. It is important to be objective while writing this type of an essay, to support your claims with real stories, facts, logical explanations, etc. More than that, is if of an exceptional importance to be honest in your essay. Substantiate your arguments with evidence, acknowledging and refuting counterarguments. Pick a couple of ideas defending your opinion and try to persuade a reader that you are right, supplement your arguments with the refutation of a counterargument.
For example, in a 5 paragraph persuasive essay on abortion, there will be one paragraph for introduction, two for claims supported by facts and pieces of evidence, one for the refutation of the counterclaim, and the last paragraph will include a conclusion. It is well-known that there are seven main methods of the induced abortion. Each of them depends on the development of the fetus in the womb. Describe every technique. This could be a good way to introduce the problem to the reader in terms of inhumanity and brutality in the beginning of your paper after you write an introduction for persuasive essay on abortion. Provide the reader with the abovementioned thesis on the issue and proceed to writing next paragraphs which support it with claims followed by pieces of evidence and facts. The following part of the main body can describe a fetus in terms of its affiliation to humanity. Starting from six weeks, it feels pain, from eight weeks it already has fingerprints, after three months the body systems are formed and start functioning. The fetus can hear, sense, sleep, wake up and taste.
The following part of the essay can show the problem from a different angle, in terms of religion, for example. Writing a persuasive essay on abortion is a big challenge, but nevertheless, you can still try to find solid pieces of evidence on the issue in terms of your opinion. The Bible says “You shall not murder”. As the fetus is considered to be a human being, you can use this statement to explain your beliefs against termination of pregnancy. To make it more credible, it should definitely contain some counterarguments and their refutation. It will show that you acknowledge the other side of the issue and take into account the opposing beliefs, not only blindly describing your position and thinking that it is the only possible one.
This is one of the points that distinguish a good persuasive essay on abortion from a bad one. State the counterclaim and refute it. For instance, according to statistics, the most frequent cases of this procedure originate from poverty, negative relationships with partners, and young age. And, you may agree that these life circumstances are considered to be at least hard to combine with an idea of a happy future for the child and its’ mother. But still, it is a rather dangerous surgical interference which can lead to health complications and infertility. There is a risk to make it the last chance to give birth to a child.
Persuasive essay against abortion is designed to persuade the audience, and, therefore, it should be written firmly as you should sound like a real expert. It is also important to mention that from the very beginning, in case the topic was not given to you and you had to develop it yourself, you should take into account that it should be appealing to you. You should be able to argue convincingly on this topic and take into account all opposing opinions. If you reckon that there are no opposite viewpoints on the topic, it means that the topic you’ve chosen is not controversial enough to write a good persuasive essay about abortion. At the same time, if you think that there are too many counterarguments that will be complicated to refute, it would be better to choose another topic. If you want to write a good essay, make sure to dig into persuasive essay topics on abortion and find the most appropriate ones, which will be controversial enough.
This kind of an essay should be relatively short, and as it was mentioned above, it should consist of approximately 5 paragraphs and several pages. Imagine that you have already written the main part of the essay including introduction and 3 main paragraphs, but how to end a persuasive essay on abortion? The conclusion is where you get your ideas together. Here you can list the most compelling arguments and appeal to emotions. In this part of the essay you can expand your statements to a broader meaning, explain why this opinion is important for you, what other issues does this opinion evoke, and what should those who read your essay do after reading it.
A persuasive essay on abortion is a complicated assignment because abortion is a rather sensitive issue to argue about, and you clarify all details you have decided to mention in your essay. You should be sure that you are positioning your point of view clearly enough for understanding, and your opinion should be precise and unambiguous. You should also recheck several times whether your opinion is supported by facts, evidence, logical explanations, experts’ points of views, statistical data or real stories from life. The idea should flow throughout the text coherently. Each paragraph should be connected to one main idea. The counterarguments should be objectively analyzed and persuasively refuted.
Also, it is important to mention that persuasive essay on abortion conclusion should express the importance of your opinion and encourage the reader to take a certain action or start thinking in a certain way. One of the most important parts of writing is a revision. It means that you are supposed to check the text for stylistic and grammatical mistakes, and make sure that everything sounds logically. Maybe you may want to add a new paragraph or rearrange parts of the text body; it is possible that you may want to remove some unconvincing pieces of evidence and replace them with stronger facts.
Even if it is a short persuasive essay on abortion, it still has to sound convincing, stylistically and grammatically correct, as the purpose of this type of paper is to convince everyone that only your opinion on the issue is correct. When you defend the side that speaks out against this interference, you can and should appeal to emotions and credibility as well as to logic (facts, statistics, logical explanations). Your position should be known upfront.
It relates to persuasive speeches against abortion as well. Make an outline for your speech or essay before writing any text. As you now can see, this type of essay or speech has a very clear format. It contains several main elements, which divide the paper into several parts and help to describe your opinion in a clear and convincing way. The outline for a persuasive essay on abortion contains an introduction, where you represent your thesis, body paragraphs that are supposed to focus on one main idea and introduce evidence to support this idea and provide the refutation of opposing arguments, and conclusion. The conclusion should be tied up with the whole text in general, and with each paragraph in particular, summarizing all the information introduced, in terms of the chosen position.
While preparing the abortion persuasive speech outline, make sure to pose a few questions and try to answer them when writing the draft of the speech. Include statistical data on the quantity of abortions performed each year, list all countries that allow termination of pregnancy, mention specific details of the surgical procedure, and assess its safety. Describe the consequences of such interference including long-term and short-term effects. Focus on stages of fetus development and try to investigate the problem of human rights from this point of view. Persuasive speech on abortion should address matters concerning allowing abortions in different countries and cultures at different times and at different stages of gestation. Try to distinguish a matter of free will and necessity. Highlight the preconditions when it may become necessary in terms of medicine, psychological, mental health and life-circumstances. Persuasive essays on abortion should introduce convincing evidence and facts, based on statistics, history, opinions of experts, logical explanations and real life stories. It should persuasively highlight the chosen topic, and its’ thesis in conjunction with the refutation of counterarguments. Stay objective and stick to the facts, appealing to emotions from time to time.
There are a lot of persuasive articles on abortion on the Internet. They can become very helpful in your research on the topic. You can boldly refer to them as well as to other reliable sources of information, such as those mentioned above. In order to illustrate the process of writing this type of paper, it would be reasonable to give a short example of a persuasive essay on abortion.
Abortion is the practice of termination of pregnancy by the removal of the human fetus from the womb. It was forbidden in the United States of America until the well-known court case that took place in 1973, and today it is known as Roe v. Wade case. Roe was the first pregnant woman who won the case, and since then, abortion became legal. Even though a numerous amount of pregnancy termination procedures has been performed since its’ legislation in the U.S., the debate whether it should have been approved is still rather hot and many citizens of the United States continue discussing legalization of abortion. Their opinions are polarized into two main groups: pro-choice and pro-life. The Pro-choice argument is that abortion must be legal, and there should be no interference of the government, and the pro-life argument is that fetus is a human being from the moment of conception, and it is wrong to resort to the abortion in terms of human rights, law, and morality. However, some people claim that abortion must be legal as the fetus is not a human being yet.
Humanity has practiced the termination of pregnancy since ancient times. However, there is no mention of abortion law. Today, the procedure is legal in many countries; it is allowed to perform it on the basis of a woman’s request only, without specifying the reasons for the operation in 29% of all countries. Among the approved reasons are preserving physical and mental health (more than 60% of countries support it), if the pregnancy is a result of incest or rape, it is allowed to terminate it in more than half of the countries, 34% of the countries allow it if women are in poor economic or social conditions. However, it is allowed in 97% of the countries in terms of salvation of a maternal life. At the same time, Stuart W.G. claimed that a fetus is not able to feel pain, and at the early stages of pregnancy, it is just a clump of cells. So is it really a human being?
Bridget, a woman who was pregnant once, found out that her son will never be able to live as a full-fledged human being because of the congenital disease. The legislation of abortion gives her a choice to decide whether or not her son should be born and live with severe medical problems incompatible with life and whether he should suffer during his lifetime.
In conclusion, it should be mentioned that it is a rather sensitive issue that leaves nobody indifferent. However, the debate on it continues to leave the opinion on it uncertain and divided, mostly when it comes to the economic, social, personal reasons, which are considered by many to be insubstantial. However, there are specific circumstances that may cause women from all over the world to resort to the termination of pregnancy. According to the WHO (World Health Organization), the number of operations performed in the countries where it’s legal equals to the amount of operations where it is banned. It is not reasonable to make it illegal, as it will not change the situation, and it will lead to the increase of the number of victims who die from poorly performed surgical procedures. This statement can be used in a high school persuasive essay on abortion, and many previously mentioned ideas can provide a basic understanding of how to write a good essay on this topic. The advanced paper would demand more information and attention to the details.
Research paper on Abortion
As now the subject is rather clear, there are several next steps to take in order to write a good essay on this subject. The first one is narrowing the topic. In order to find an appropriate one among the variety of the abortion research essay topics, use books, articles, encyclopedias and other reliable literature to define the final topic. While looking through the above-listed sources, try to find the information about people who have faced the issue, define your own point of view on the topic, explain to yourself why it is considered to be an important subject to write about and, how, when and where has the problem developed. This will be rather helpful in order to make your topic clear and give the further understanding of how to write a research paper on abortion. For example, “termination of abortion should be illegal” is a good topic, but it may not be good enough. The better topic would be the one answering the question why you think it should be illegal. So, the better topic would be: “The termination of pregnancy should be illegal because a fetus is considered to be a human being.”
There is a vast variety of the abortion research paper topics to choose from, all you need to do is to find the most appropriate for the requirements of your research. The next step would be to define your thesis or objectives. You should keep in mind that it is better to avoid a form of question and it should be written in a sentence, and you will have to exclude such phrases as “I think”, “In my opinion”, “To my mind”, “From my point of view”, and the paper should not be written in a figurative language. Your purpose in writing of this type of paper is to prove the validity of your thesis. Therefore, the thesis should not be an indisputable fact or a point of view that can’t be proven. For example, “It is ethically and legally wrong to resort to the termination of pregnancy as a developing embryo can be equated with a human life.” After you are done with the abortion research paper thesis, compose a good outline of the essay. It will organize your notes when you start the investigation. Start with listing the themes that you want to highlight in your paper. Then, divide the topics into main topics and subtopics. Your outline should contain an introduction and a thesis statement, several paragraphs of the body and conclusion. You can also think of a format in which you will write the essay; it can be written in chronological order or in a comparison-contrast format. Abortion research paper outline example is the following:
- Introduction (thesis at the end) “It is ethically and legally right to resort to the mentioned above procedure as a developing embryo cannot be equated with a human life.”
- Main body:
- Statistics, laws
- Stages of fetus development
- Conscious awareness
As you can see, the introduction paragraph for abortion essay of this type should be formed of general information on the topic, a short historical review, and a thesis statement. It should also capture the reader’s attention and shortly introduce the main ideas. The main body should expand the ideas from each section of the outline. And the conclusion should summarize your research and prove your thesis. If you decide to write a research paper against abortion, make sure to explain your position on why you are against it, search for reliable sources that demonstrate the negative influence of such procedures, introduce the real testimonies of those who have resorted to it, discuss the political and social matter of the issue, use scientific research that defends your statement. Drawing upon your outline and notes, you can also turn to research questions about abortion. They can be different, for example, is it a matter of human rights or, are is it a matter of women rights, or maybe both? Should people reference to Bible when discussing this issue? Is it better to make it illegal and would it be a good or bad decision?
After you have finished your final outline, it’s time to start writing a draft. Eventually, this draft will be revised and there no need to focus on stylistic requirements and avoiding grammatical mistakes. You should focus on the content of the research essay on abortion, taking into account your outline, drawing upon your notes. After having completed the draft, check if each topic in the main body correlates with the thesis, also take notice of pieces of evidence, check if each idea is supported by facts. After that, compose a final draft. Here you should pay attention to stylistic requirements of the paper. It should contain citations and references, title page if required. These steps can help you start completing your assignment and elucidate how to write the research paper. We do hope that these tips will help you write an excellent paper, and in case you face too many difficulties, you can buy research paper online at our website.
Cause and effect essay on Abortion
A cause and effect essay is a paper where writer introduces causes and then describes the possible implications. First, you should decide what should be the cause and what exactly should be the effect. If the termination of pregnancy is the cause, then you will want to describe possible consequences, such as physiological and psychological complications. If the procedure is the effect, you will describe the causes that have led to this measure. Choose your strategy and mind that the essay can be informative or convincing. It will give direction to the flow of the essay while gathering data and making notes. Usually, this type of an essay consists of 5 paragraphs, including introduction, a paragraph where the cause of the issue is introduced, the paragraph where the effect is highlighted, and the paragraph where these two are combined. As usual, they are followed by the conclusion. We believe that the tips mentioned above will help, but if you need more information on how to write a good cause and effect essay, you can always count on us and ask our support team in chat.
Satire essay on Abortion
This type of an essay uses irony, humor, and hyperbole to ridicule the topic. This essay is intended to entertain the readers, but it also should be eye-opening and useful. The main purpose is to make readers see the absurdity of the issue, which is discussed. You can resort to exaggeration in order to criticize it or say something absolutely opposite to what you really mean to express discrepancy between the expectations and real happening. Make jokes in order to receive the desirable reaction, because this is the shortest way to make the reader think as you do. For example, “men should be illegal” – is a bright example of a satirical expression in terms of the issue under discussion.
Explository essay on Abortion
This type of essay implies the explanation of a certain topic or a number of ideas to a particular audience. It doesn’t require a deep research; it rather demands your own thoughts on the issue. It has basic requirements, though. It contains an introduction and thesis, main body and conclusion. It also should be a 5-paragraph essay, where the main body consists of three paragraphs. It can be more sections of the main body, but not less. So let’s start with the details. The subject is abortion; the topic can be “Abortion should be illegal”, and the thesis “Abortion should be illegal, because it is inhuman”. A 5-page essay on abortion can comprehensively describe the topic and explain the main points. Compose your outline, list certain examples, which can demonstrate the main points of your topic. It can be a personal experience or real stories from life. Make sure that there is a connection between the thesis and examples. In conclusion, it is better to give a concise overview in conjunction with a forecast or recommendations for the future. Hopefully, writing an expository essay won’t be that hard for you now!
Important of Abortion essay outline
Before starting to write the essay and after conducting a proper research on the subject, you should compose the outline. Define the appropriate topic on abortion. Introduction paragraph should highlight the subject of the paper; in this case, the subject is the termination of pregnancy. In this section the reader should also be informed on how the paper is organized, it can be a concise introduction of general evidence that proves your thesis. And the last part of it should be the thesis. It should clearly express your point of view on the topic. For example, if the topic is “The termination of pregnancy should be illegal”, the thesis should be “The termination of pregnancy should be illegal because it is inhumane”. This is what the essay on abortion introduction should be.
The main body of the essay should be composed of arguments connected to the thesis supported by evidence. If required, there can also be several counterarguments and their refutation. Termination of pregnancy is a rather sensitive subject to write about; it is recommended to choose the abortion counterarguments, that you can convincingly refute in order to link it to the thesis. It is especially effective in the essay on pros and cons of abortion. The main body is followed by a conclusion. Make sure that it concisely restates all the main arguments supporting the main idea, summarize all the introduced information in order to tie it up to the thesis.
In order to make your writing project really attractive, you should use some writing techniques, which can notably improve and mark it out among the numerous amount of others. There are a lot of abortion essays on the Internet, and in order to make someone want to read yours, you should define the audience that you are addressing in your paper. Depending on the audience, the tactic will also change. For example, if your audience is a professor, the method of drawing attention will differ from the one when you are addressing your topic to your classmates or groupmates, as well as other possible social groups. Define if your target group is captive. If it is a professor or an admission person, your objective will be to encourage them to give you a good grade or to persuade them to admit you into the university. And besides, they are obliged to read your paper, because it is their job. When the target group is not paid for reading your project, you should think about how to draw their attention so that they would be interested in reading particularly your paper, because there is a huge chance that they will skip your paper and choose another one instead.
As there was mentioned before, termination of pregnancy is a rather popular topic and the abortion essay hooks will be a lifeline of your paper. When you understand what your audience is, the next step is to figure out what your readers want to read about, what are they interested in. Are they looking for entertainment? Are they willing to solve their problem? Maybe they want to find some particular information? Or they are interested in your personal thoughts? There are no strict rules of composing a good hook.
Basically, it’s one or two sentences at the beginning of your project, which serve to catch the readers’ attention. After defining the target group and its motivation, define the purpose of your paper. It can be an argumentative essay or a persuasive essay, it can also be a cause and effect essay or satiric essay, it can be a research project or expository essay, etc. Depending on the type of paper, the purpose will change. In some cases, the purpose is to describe the topic, and in others, it is to convince the reader in your rightness regarding the arguments that you provide on the matter. Sometimes, it has to be an informative writing or a descriptive one, and sometimes it is exploratory. A good hook should be supposed to evoke some feelings, and you are to determine what they should feel like after reading it, motivated to act in a certain way or become interested in your life story, get scared or entertained. A good hook represents the objective of your paper and what you want to share with. To make it completely clear, you can look through several abortion essay examples, which have similar objectives to your own essay, so it can be rather helpful.
Here are some examples of good hooks for abortion essays:
- Denying abortion is sexist
- Rape v. Abortion
- Would the unborn choose to die or live?
- Poverty is not an excuse for abortion
- Your baby is unwanted. Will it become a new John Snow?
How to choose a good topic?
When you are writing an argumentative essay, you should focus on choosing a good topic. It is one of the most sensitive issues to write about. It belongs to ten of the most disputable themes: animal rights and experimentation, breast cancer, death penalty, border control, genetic cloning, human trafficking, plastic surgery, and pharmaceutical industry. Argument essay topics on abortion can be narrowed to the specific position on pro-life or pro-choice. Your task is to define which position you will defend and from what point of view. You can highlight it in terms of religion, morality, law, human rights, ethics, health, etc. For example, “Should abortion be illegal?”, “Is it inhumane?”, “Is it always right or is it always wrong?”, etc.
Closing sentence for Abortion essay
The conclusion is intended to summarize the entire project; this is where you should revise your hook sentence, your thesis, and major ideas. There is a wide range of abortion research topics to choose from, here is the list of possible interesting ones:
- Should grandparents interfere into the taking the decision on termination of pregnancy?
- Should a woman be forced to resort to this procedure by law in some cases?
- Should women have a restricted number of possible abortions throughout their lives?
The best way to learn how to write not just a good but a top-notch essay on abortion is to follow the instructions in conjunction with following the best essay examples. It will give you an idea of how to compose a well-structured paper. Good samples are sophisticated and contain an advanced vocabulary; they are saturated with rich sentence structure and complex grammatical structures.
At the same time, examples of abortion essays can be useful in demonstrating the basic principles of writing, they represent the structure of the required type of work and help you understand the flow of the idea: where is the thesis statement, what is a good hook, how arguments and pieces of evidence correlate with the thesis statement and how a good ending should sound like. They can help you look at the topic comprehensively revealing the issue from different sides, giving you direction and inspiring you. Abortion essay outline example can inspire you to write a really decent outline for your own topic, boosting the writing process and accelerating it. They can also become very helpful to save your time, give you direction and focus on the most important ideas, which are already gathered together in the best way.
There is no need to reinvent the wheel, all you will need to do is to make it original, unique, and bright in terms of language and supporting evidence. As it was mentioned before, a sample essay on abortion can not only give an insight of the practical application of a certain style or literature device, but it can encourage you, relying upon the recognized analog of the best variant of the required paper, to write your own masterpiece. Using the best solutions from different samples, you can win the attention of your audience and achieve the desired effect. If you are stuck with your research or feel a lack of time, or you have a very important essay that is vital for your future, as an assignment, it would be a good idea to resort to a free essay on abortion as soon as possible. In the combination of following the instructions on the structure and style with your own efforts, it will quickly give you a notion of where to start from and how to move on, how to make it comprehensive, grammatically and stylistically correct, rich in terms of language and content.
Now when you have a guideline about how to write research papers, argumentative essays, and corresponding types of papers, you may want to take a look at abortion research paper examples, argumentative essays and other examples of different types of papers on this topic. You can easily find them on the Internet and on our website as well.
Other useful information
The two opposing points of views can indicate advantages and disadvantages of termination of pregnancy. In the advantages of abortion essays, one can highlight the issue in terms of the positive effect of this measure. For example, to emphasize the positive side of this procedure, you can focus on various aspects. For example, unsafe termination of abortion increases the risk of death, it should be conducted under the law and by professionals only; it is a rather disputable issue to give a birth to the child who was conceived as a result of rape or incest; sometimes to save a woman’s life this is an option, embryo and fetus are just a clump of cells, would it be cruel to give birth to a disabled fetus? The positive effects of abortion essays can describe the issue in terms of the possible life course of a woman who took a decision to resort to the procedure. If she is a teenager, she will get an opportunity to devote herself to the education; if she is unmarried, she will increase her chances to get married; if she is poor, she will be able to stand on her own feet and give birth to the child at a better time, so that the child will be able to grow in a full family of mature and educated parents.
If you are to write a disadvantages of abortion essay, it would be reasonable to stick to the following arguments. Physical and psychological complications can follow the procedure of termination of pregnancy, a woman can experience health complications and unbearable sense of guilt throughout her entire life, it can also cause a pressure from the society, it can also lead to infertility. Consequences of abortion essay should describe the issue from both sides. It should be mentioned that professionals recommend resorting to the termination of pregnancy at the earliest stages of pregnancy because the later it’s conducted, the more dangers and risks can arise. It can cause long-term effects and short-term effects. Among the long-term consequences are health complications and death. The short-term effects include increased breast cancer risk, infertility, post-traumatic stress disorder, sexual dysfunction.
However, the issue can remain a philosophical question, even though it has a practical influence on a daily life of humanity. You can still try to find the answer to this question posing it in a philosophical essay on abortion. Humanity representatives of different cultures and countries have not established a common understanding of what is right regarding this extremely debatable topic. Basically, you are required to consider the issue in accordance with the necessary thesis. You should explain it, provide the supporting arguments, offer an objection and defend your thesis against the objection to it, describe the issue in terms of pros and cons, provide the reader with possible consequences it might have. There is a good example of a decent philosophical essay on the topic by Carl Sagan. Carl Sagan essay on abortion raises the most arguable questions regarding the debatable issue. For example, at what moment life begins? Should the right to live depend on circumstances of conception? What history tells us about abortion? What attitude does religion reveal in its’ texts? Should humanity look at it from one side or should it stop putting it to the extremes? All these questions can and should be raised in essays on abortion in order to highlight the topic in the best way.
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Research Paper on Abortion
- Research Methodology
- Literature review
Traditionally, abortion can be described as 'expulsion of the fetus before it is viable'. This may comprise miscarriage or spontaneous abortion or induced abortion in which someone - the woman herself, a doctor, or a layperson- causes the abortion. Abortion is considered as one of the most controversial, difficult, and painful subjects in the contemporary society. The main controversy revolves around the issues of who executes the decision related to abortion, the state or the individual; under which conditions it could be done; and who is authorized of making the decision. Medical issues like techniques of abortion are considered controversial; however there is sometimes part of debate at a large scale.
Thesis Statement: it is hypothesized that although abortion is regarded as murder of human life in Catholic moral teachings, it sometimes becomes unavoidable due to critical factors like controlling family-size, saving life etc, however; every society and culture has particular ways of confronting unwanted or unplanned pregnancy with abortion.
Concentrating on the issue of abortion and how serious is the problem along with presenting the strategies to encounter the problem the purpose is to construct an applied model inflicting a methodology that permits for penetration of secondary data related to the key aspects of abortion. The abortion issue was not an important predictor when offered to every predictive paradigm.
Selecting an Appropriate Research Methodology
The choice for research methodology is derived from hypothesis about the gravity of abortion and the manner in which its impact could be managed is assessed. From theoretical concept to the practical scenario, the study of abortion issue, its positive and negative impacts along with follow up of different views are specifically challenging tasks. Contributing in and observing behavior of women involved in abortion would thus challenge the researcher with events that highly are compound, continuously altering and are subject to constant re-evaluation in due course.
The analysis of different preventive strategies to show what is being done to confront the problem and opinions of groups on both sides- favoring or opposing- assumes that issue should be properly understood and only then a conclusive argument should be formed backed by extensive research. The empirical study made in this regard suggests adopting a particular design that links understanding gravity of issue with adopting measures to confront the problem. Without studying these significant links and analyzing preventive measures are indeed an act done in isolation.
Abortion- Background- Controversies and Conflicts
Abortion is not a new issue in human society; studies showed that more than three hundred contemporary nonindustrial societies practiced abortion. Abortions had been performed by women on themselves and also experienced abortion at the hands of different persons for thousands of years. Abortions continue to take place today in developing areas under supervision of medical experts and medically primitive conditions. Modern technology as well as social change, however, has made abortion a part of modern healthcare system. Abortion, at the same time, has also become a political issue in some of the societies and a flash point for controversies or disagreements regarding role of women and individual sovereignty in the major decisions of life. Different social responses to abortion range from those of personal and women's immediate circle of friends and family to the community, organizational, and even national levels. Every society and culture has particular ways of confronting with unwanted or unplanned pregnancy and with abortion. Such traditions are altering swiftly in the modern world. (Wicklund, 201)
At the most fundamental level, unplanned pregnancy results from a failure of the complicated and balancing act engaged in by most females (and male) to reconcile two different aspects of their lives; the wish and the sexual intercourse or reluctance to have children. Contraceptive usage could mediate the tension between the two; however contraception is not always available and as such entire methods may fail. People's attempts, however, to reconcile sexual intercourse and the wish for children may not take place in a vacuum. The level of control by a women over the phenomenon whether she has sexual intercourse and over how and when many children she has is mostly impacted by her age, religious and cultural background, and economic and social position in the society. Furthermore, in addition to the long-standing and persistent economic and social disparities between men and women, within and between nations, and a highly inequitable distribution of the resources available in the world, some new and possibly even more weakened social forces have entered the scenario. (Baumgardner 156)
Civil wars, the resurgence of organized genocide, suppressed ethnic rivalries, famine, the virtual collapse of civil communities, and the destruction wrought by AIDS in different nations- all are likely to undermine and disrupt the capability of women and men in controlling their own as well as the lives of their families, including their reproductive lives. The reproductive costs and consequences of sexual intercourse are often far more serious and more lasting for women compared with men. The physical expression related to sexuality is universal and fundamental. What differs is how religious, cultures, and societies influence and construe both the setting in which sexual intercourse between women and men takes place and the nature of relationships in which pregnancy is discouraged or encouraged. Most religious and societies approve of sexual intercourse and eventually childbearing only in the spectrum of marriage and seem to discourage people from possessing sexual partners outside marriage. The ideal for most of the world is that any woman starts to live with a man or marries, they have children together, and the couple performs their best to stay together for the rest of their lives. However, in some societies, men and women have sexual intercourse prior to marriage and between their marriages and also with partner other than their spouse. The level to do so varies within and among nations. (Comm 110)
Abortion creates mix feelings in societies highlighting basic differences as well as conflicting point-of-view compared with most of the public or social health complications. It is a grave concern sensitive to distinctive interpretations with disruptive public policy apprehensions. The fundamental concept that a woman may chose with her consent for abortion is a disturbing idea to a huge segment of society. However, proponents of abortion including human and health rights champions argue that specific laws banning abortion seems to neglect the grave effects of unwanted pregnancies but show only disregard for women's capability for making independent and moral decisions. It is pertinent to mention that abortion has, in fact, existed in almost every society, however, intensely opposed by religions and governments. (Baumgardner 170)
Abortion was legally acknowledged in Europe in the twentieth century with some countries such as Germany and Spain being exception and regards it as illegal. In this context, it is necessary that governments should consider the phenomenon whether to allow or not unsafe abortions that are serious threats not only to the health of women but in several cases relates to survival of women and their families. Proponents of allowing abortions raise the question whether it is legally and morally plausible for the individuals, society, and governments to ignore this human rights issue creating health inequalities intrinsic in the policies and regulations related to abortion existing in several countries. (Cochrane 110)
Advocates of abortion regard it as the deliberate murder of an innocent life and therefore a moral dilemma whether or not legally acceptable. But morality and law are interrelated as such abortion is legally considered as killing a life in several parts of the world. Abortion, however, remains as one of the most significant social and moral issues in the world. One group emphasizes the idea of saving human life as conception at any particular cost to such point of placing life at the top priority to the life of the fetus still to be born over the life of mother. The other group, however, signifies that any woman possesses the right to control her body being an independent soul to the point of preserving her right over the natural fact of development of a new life. (Cochrane 155)
The group having opinion that abortion is morally justifiable and legally acceptable emphasizes that a fetus or embryo not able to survive outside mother's womb should not be considered as a human being different from her mother's body. Others believe that human life only starts with the nervous system. Group opposite to abortion asserts that it is, in fact, illogical when a fetus or an embryo is considered as a separate human life. Some believe that a fetus is not able of self-awareness or thought necessary for human being and as such does not posses a right of survival. (Gorman 88)
The moral dilemma of pregnancy underlies specific reasons related to unplanned pregnancy or deliberate abortions are common in most of the societies. Many women, whether or not married, without intentions of becoming pregnant are also not using any particular contraceptive method. Some of them also use such methods that provide inadequate protection against pregnancy. Furthermore, there are some areas where women have low access to safe contraceptives are not aware from where to obtain them. There is a huge number of couples having inadequate resources and struggling to raise their families. They find it difficult to afford more children and as such acknowledge the phenomenon that any type of unplanned pregnancy could result in a disaster for their family including dependent parents and children. In many developing countries, the idea of unmarried woman having a baby is unacceptable and as such is related to the morality dilemma. (Devereux 178)
Similar to the sexual impulse, the desire to childbearing is almost universal and fundamental. Most of the people desire to have a family at any time in their lives. However, attitudes related to ideal family size and also the best time having children are mostly the outcome of cultural values, social expectations, and economic circumstances. The desire for small families in the modern world has intensified especially in most of the developing nations since the decade of 1970. (Comm 112)
Catholic Moral Teaching on Abortion
The issue of abortion is not new to the society but has always remained a grave concern creating conflict or controversies emerging from the exposure of embryonic human life along with attitudes towards it. Several religions including some denominations inside Christianity have accepted the rule that abortion is killing a human life if it is done after soul have entered human body of a fetus or an embryo. However many popes and church authorities differ in the timing as some of them are of the view of considering it at a particular time such as forty or eighty days whereas others placed the time when the women first develop feeling of fetus movement. It is, however, pertinent to mention that the traditional stance of church has changed with the passage of time as in the past the Catholic Church considered abortion equal to murder and evil, whether any particular abortion is not a murder if only performed to save the life of woman. This opinion or stance of Catholic teaching has been changed from its start in which Church had always remained against the practice of abortion. In other words, the Church had always been involved in controversies related to the laws allowing or favoring abortion. For the Christians in early times, life was regarded as a gift from the God. Through Gospel message, the gift of life eventually received extra value that anticipated the process of birth and excelled death. Famous religions of the world also deal with the issue of abortion. Judaism consider fetus as a human-being not fully developed. As such, to kill a fetus is not considered as a murder in Judaism. Islam, on the other hand, is against abortion allowing it only in circumstances to save life of woman. Hinduism treats abortion as the act of violence while Buddhism considers abortion an act against nature. (Devereux 178)
In Evangelical Churches, abortion is regarded equivalent to infanticide and unnatural. However, a segment of Protestant Churches favors abortion if performed to save life. Even though abortion is not described or criticized particularly in the Gospels of the New Testament, sufficient evidence exist about the sanctity of intrauterine life in Luke, Chapter 1 narrating the story of unborn Christ and also unborn John the Baptist. In fact, abortion was condemned vividly in Christian teaching in 'Didache', being the oldest source of Ecclesiastical law. Didache is the ancient and first century document containing early Christian teachings. The Didache comprises five different parts. One of its chapters (Didache 2:1-2(A.D. 70)) condemns abortion being first act of condemnation as "The second commandment of the teaching: You shall not murder. You shall not commit adultery. You shall not seduce boys. You shall not commit fornication. You shall not steal. You shall not practice magic. You shall not use potions. You shall not procure (an) abortion, nor destroy a newborn child." Even the Law of Moses imposed strict penalties for abortion and stated that if abortion results in serious injury or death then "take life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot". (Eggebroten 172)
After Didache, the explicit condemnation of abortion has remained an integral part of Christian teachings as Pope John Paul II affirmed in the year 1995 that teaching of Church on the subject of abortion remains unchanged and a grave moral disorder. He re-confirmed the stance of Catholic Church on the subject of abortion as killing an innocent human life. Banning of abortion being a direct cause of death of a fetus is an integral component of Christian teachings. However, in the modern science there are certain medical procedures that indirectly result in the death of fetus of embryo. Catholic Churches, in the contemporary world, regard such procedures as a moral option. (O'Neill 145)
Direct Abortion and Acts of God as per Christianity
One of the main features of Christianity teaching is its emphasis on human life that should be protected and is valuable at every stage. Since abortion is meant to end the life, Christianity regards it as a moral disorder. The premeditated or planned killing of a human life, especially an innocent life at its inception is condemned in the Christianity teachings. The deliberate or planned abortion is considered as an abominable crime for which a penalty of excommunication should be given. Traditionally, Catholic Christianity has stressed to maintain absolutes that should not be altered. On the other hand, the role of conscience is also acknowledged by the Catholic Church while making any moral decision which should be informed by worship as well as prayer. (Bender 99)
Direct or deliberate abortion and everyone participating in the act of direct abortion are condemned in the Christian teachings. It is, therefore, necessary to highlight the difference between direct and indirect abortion. Indirect abortion is treating the mother or saving her life causing an abortion. The fifth commandment prohibits direct abortion and everyone cooperating in it. Every one participating in direct or deliberate abortion, including the woman herself has to face the penalty of excommunication as per fifth commandment. The purpose is to respect and protect human-being from the moment of conception. "Human life must be respected and protected absolutely from the moment of conception. "From the first moment of his/her existence, a human being must be recognized as having the rights of a person- among which is the inviolable right of every innocent being to life" (Catechism of the Catholic Church: The fifth commandment) Therefore, involvement of individuals in direct abortion is considered as a mortal sin in Catholic teachings as it is committed with awareness of the fact that they are sinful and immoral. (Devereux 112)
Moreover, the artificial methods of contraception are also not allowed in Catholic moral teaching. Contraception includes condoms, contraceptive pills, and sterilization; all of these methods are lethally sinful. As per Catholic teachings during monthly cycles of a woman there comes a time when she is infertile, as such, interfering in this process is considered as intruding in the acts of God. Although contraception is not allowed in Catholic teachings, the responsible attitude of couples is respected and contemporary views allow the phenomenon of family planning. Catholic teachings highlight the sacredness and holiness of life. Every Christian denomination emphasize human life has a soul that is bound to live even after death. It is pertinent to mention that Bible specifically says about humans 'created in God's image' (Genesis 1:27) Jesus was sent by God to show that God values human life. Christianity teachings underline that life has been given by the God and it is He who is authorized to take it away. "The Lord brings death and makes alive: he brings down to the grave and raises up" (1 Samuel 2:6) Abortion means killing a human life, without God's will, is against the teachings of Christianity and against the 6th command; "You shall not murder" (Exodus 20:13) Life should be protected right from the inception and any act to abort the natural process is against Christianity teachings. "You shall not kill the embryo by abortion and shall not cause the newborn to perish" (Didache) (Dixon-Mueller 176) Another significant aspect is the interference in the acts of God by human-beings. God is the creator of world and no one has the right to interfere in it. As human life is given by God and it is God who can take it back, abortion is considered as an interference and intrusion in God's acts because it deters the natural phenomenon of brining human life into the world and denying the value of human life. (Gorman 91)
The paper has strived to present the theme of abortion. Abortion is defined as 'expulsion of the fetus before it is viable. Furthermore, role of family and relation of family size with pregnancy matters have also been highlighted. After developing the relevant background, efforts have been made to highlight moral dilemma. At the end of paper, some of the Catholic moral teachings have been presented supported by extensive research. On the basis of arguments presented in the paper, it can be asserted that there are positive as well as negative opinions about abortion signifying conflicts and controversies involved in the debate of allowing or disallowing abortion and whether it is morally acceptable or not. Similarly, research made for this paper reveals that Catholic moral teachings regard abortion equivalent to murder.
Baumgardner, Jennifer Abortion & Life Akashic Books, p. 156, 170
Bender, Karen Choice: True Stories of Birth, Contraception, Infertility, Adoption, Single Parenthood, and Abortion, MacAdam/Cage, 2007, p. 99
Cochrane, Linda Forgiven and Set Free: A Post-Abortion Bible Study for Women Baker Books, 1996, p. 110, 155
Comm, Mary Secret Sin: When God's People Choose Abortion Morgan James Publishing, 2006, p. 69, 112
Devereux, A Study of Abortion in Primitive Society. Julian Press, 1955, p. 112, 178
Dixon-Mueller, Ruth Abortion & Common Sense Xlibris Corporation, 2002, p. 176
Eggebroten, Anne Abortion: My Choice, God's Grace: Christian Women Tell Their Stories Hope Publishing House, 1994, 172
Gorman, Michael Abortion and the Early Church: Christian, Jewish and Pagan attitudes in the Greco-Roman World Wipf & Stock Publishers, 1998, p. 88, 91
O'Neill, Jennifer You're Not Alone: Healing Through God's Grace After Abortion Faith
Communications, 2005, p. 145
Wicklund, Susan This Common Secret: My Journey as an Abortion Doctor Public Affair, 2007, p. 201