Food Security Case Study

food production, information processes, education, infrastructure services, security, and conflict management as critical systems components. The organizations level included tribes, NGOs, process owners, and political parties. Finally, at the society level, government, regulations, and the international community were thought to play a significant role.

The group identified assumptions that seemed to span these four levels: predictability, the need for good metrics, sustainability, ownership of various aspects of the system, stakeholder buy-in for solutions, and cultural values. Among the challenges identified, in addition to those mentioned by earlier speakers, were vested interests, the conflict between immediate and long-term needs, the newness of the government, weak infrastructure, and corruption at various levels. Finally, the group discussed what one would need to know in order to decide between different options for agricultural development such as simple subsistence agriculture, highly centralized farming, or market-focused production.

The group identified expertise and other perspectives that would be needed to provide input into an operational systems engineering model—transportation, agricultural production, logistics, culture, nutrition, public health, the environment, and the dynamics of inter- and intra-tribal politics—and in doing so realized that the outputs of the model would provide compelling information for decision makers.

Finally, the group discussed what kinds of metrics would be appropriate for the model, acknowledging that they can be interdependent and at the same time point in different directions. Among the metrics identified were measures of stability, sustainability, growth of the society, and the access to, availability of, and utilization of food. For example, the percentage of malnourished people, income, food prices, and how quickly food gets to consumers would all be important. Metrics would also need to be used to establish a baseline to enable measurement of the results of implemented changes.

In the subsequent plenary discussion, workshop participants observed that part of the model could be constructed quickly as work progressed on the overall model. They also speculated that observations of ongoing changes in South Sudan could be used to reverse engineer how the system currently works. A dynamic analysis could provide guidance for policy interventions.

The challenge of applying operational systems engineering to peacebuilding is particularly formidable in South Sudan because the country is so new and faces so many challenges. In developing a model to link food security to conflict, the conclusion was that the best approach might be to start simple, determine the most important factors, and gradually add complexity.

Human Health and Nutrition Policies

Improving human health and nutrition is a key goal of food systems. The cases in this section describe the interactions between the food systems and human health and nutrition and illustrate how government action may improve health and nutrition through a portfolio of direct interventions such as food fortification, biofortification, price policies, educational campaigns, food for education, and a variety of other government policies to improve health, reduce hunger and malnutrition, and decrease the prevalence of overweight and obesity.

3-1

HIV/AIDS, Gender, and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa
Anandita Philipose; 14 pp.

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3-2

Food Security, Nutrition, and Health in Costa Rica’s Indigenous Populations
Anna Herforth; 16 pp.

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3-4

The Policy Process of Increasing Micronutrient Programming in India
Anna Herforth; 9 pp.

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3-5

Developing a National Food Fortification Program in the Dominican Republic
Sunny S. Kim; 12 pp.

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3-6

Biofortification in a Food Chain Approach in West Africa
Maja Slingerland; 12 pp.

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3-7

Biofortification as a Vitamin A Deficiency Intervention in Kenya
Angela Mwaniki; 11 pp.

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3-8

The Impact of Food for Education Programs in Bangladesh
Akhter U. Ahmed, and Suresh C. Babu; 11 pp.

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3-12

Salmonella Control in Denmark and the EU
Tove Christensen, and Lill Andersen; 11 pp.

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3-13

Alcohol Abuse in Urban Moshi, Tanzania
Vicky Castens, Felix Luginga, Benjamin Shayo, and Christine Tolias; 15 pp.

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3-14

Cervical Cancer and Its Impact on the Burden of Disease
Michael Napolitano, Erica Schonman, Elisia Mpango, and Gabriel Isdori; 16 pp.

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Food Security, Consumption and Demand Policies

Food security is defined as access to sufficient food to meet the energy and nutrient requirements for a healthy and productive life. The majority of food-insecure people live in rural areas of developing countries. Their food security is heavily influenced by poverty, access to resources, and fluctuations in weather patterns and markets. Household and individual food security is also influenced by household behavior in general and intrahousehold allocations in particular, which in turn, are influenced by knowledge, promotion, and advertising. The cases in this section explain how government policies can reduce food insecurity caused by rural poverty and fluctuations in weather patterns and markets to which the rural poor are exposed, as well as change household allocative behavior and regulate external influences such as food advertising by retailers and wholesalers.

4-2

Surviving Shocks in Ethiopia: The Role of Social Protection for Food Security
Annick Hiensch; 10 pp.

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4-5

Intrahousehold Allocation, Gender Relations, and Food Security in Developing Countries
Agnes R. Quisumbing, and Lisa C. Smith; 13 pp.

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Poverty Alleviation Policies

The cases in this section address the interaction between income distribution, poverty, food security, and nutrition and illustrate how government action can influence all of these through conditional transfers programs, policies to facilitate migration out of agriculture, and a series of other policies to influence income distribution and poverty.

5-1

PROGRESA: An Integrated Approach to Poverty Alleviation in Mexico
Leigh Gantner; 11 pp.

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Domestic Market Policies

The cases in this section illustrate the role of food markets and food marketing in the economy and discuss the links between farmers and markets. These cases discuss policies designed to help integrate small farmers into the market economy, with emphasis on the facilitation of contract farming, collective bargaining, farmer associations, food price stabilization, and the successful development of high-value agriculture on small farms. They also discuss the increasing concentration of food retailers and wholesalers, the role of government, and the importance of infrastructure to facilitate market-based poverty reduction.

6-1

Concentration in Agribusiness and Marketing: A Case Study of Arla Foods
Derek Baker, and Kimmie Graber-Lützhøft; 15 pp.

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6-2

A Revolution in the Making: The Case of Agro-Food Retailing in India
Sudha Narayanan; 14 pp.

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6-3

Contract Farming in Developing Countries: Patterns, Impact, and Policy Implications
Nicholas Minot; 13 pp.

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6-4

Smallholder Farmers’ Access to Markets for High-Value Agricultural Commodities in India
P. S. Birthal, and P. K. Joshi; 10 pp.

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6-5

Small-Farm Access to High-Value Horticultural Markets in Kenya
Joseph Dever; 12 pp.

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6-6

Contract Farming in Costa Rica: A Case Study on Contracts in Pepper Farming
Fernando Sáenz-Segura, Marijke D’Haese, and Ruerd Ruben; 11 pp.

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6-7

Enhancing Smallholder Farmers’ Market Competitiveness in Tanzania
Ibrahim Kawa, and Loyce M. Kaitira; 9 pp.

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6-8

Food Price Stabilization Policies in a Globalizing World
Shahidur Rashid; 13 pp.

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6-9

Rural Road Investments, Agricultural Development, and Poverty Alleviation in China
Satoru Shimokawa; 10 pp.

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6-10

The Growing Trend of Farmers’ Markets in the United States
Erica Phillips; 13 pp.

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6-11

The Growth of Supermarkets and its Implications for Smallholders in Uganda
Gabriel Elepu; 9 pp.

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6-12

The Dairy Sector of Armenia: Relationships among Supply Chain Members
Elbis Peplozyan, and Irina Poleshkina; 19 pp.

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Food Production and Supply Policies

The cases in this section present and discuss various policy options to assist farmers to expand production, increase incomes, improve food security, and manage production and market risks. Emphasis is on policies that mitigate the negative effects of potential or actual famines, droughts, and a series of other threats facing small farmers and pastoralists. The cases also discuss land distribution policies, research and technology policies, and policies that facilitate the production of biofuel without negative effects on food security.

7-2

Persistent Food Insecurity from Policy Failures in Malawi
Suresh Babu, and Prabuddha Sanyal; 12 pp.

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7-3

Policy Implications of Droughts and Food Insecurity in Malawi and Zambia
Anandita Philipose; 14 pp.

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7-4

Famine and Food Insecurity in Ethiopia
Joachim von Braun, and Tolulope Olofinbiyi; 11 pp.

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7-5

Managing Drought Risks in the Low-Rainfall Areas of the Middle East and North Africa
Peter Hazell; 10 pp.

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7-7

Farm Restructuring in Transition: Land Distribution in Russia
Eugenia Serova; 10 pp.

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7-9

Pros and Cons of Cotton Production in Uzbekistan
Nodir Djanibekov, Inna Rudenko, John P. A. Lamers, and Ihtiyor Bobojonov; 13 pp.

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7-10

The Black Bengal Goat as a Tool to Promote Sustainable Livelihoods in Rural West Bengal
Subhasish Biswas; 12 pp.

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7-11

The Fertilizer Subsidy Program in Sri Lanka
Jeevika Weerahewa, Sarath S. Kodithuwakku, and Anoma Ariyawardana; 12 pp.

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7-13

Development Issues in the Traditional Livestock Sector of the Kyrgyz Republic
Aida Bolotbekova, and Ivan Nefedjev; 15 pp.

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Natural Resource Management Policies

The interaction between natural resource management and food production and the role of government are illustrated in the cases prepared for this section. These cases present policy options for the government and civil society to fight soil degradation along with an illustration of how government policy can best be used to deal with the very complex but common situation in which there are strong interactions between human and environmental health in the context of expanded food production. Several policy options for the allocation of scarce water supplies are also presented.

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8-3

Environment and Health in Rural Kazakhstan: Linking Agricultural Policy and Natural Resource Management to Rural Welfare
Andrews Jones; 14 pp.

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8-5

The Economic Benefits of Fisheries Management: The Case of Western Channel Sole
Trond Bjørndal; 10 pp.

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8-6

8-7

Managing Soil Salinity in the Lower Reaches of the Amudarya Delta: How to Break the Vicious Circle
Akmal Akramkhanov, Mirzakhayot Ibrakhimov, and John P. A. Lamers; 13 pp.

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8-8

Intensive Fish Farming as a Contributor to the Depletion of Underground and Surface Water Resources in the Ararat Valley
Tatiana Trifonova; 15 pp.

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8-9

Rehabilitation of Saline Soils in Tajikistan: The Example of Saline Soils in Vakhsh Valley
Hukmatullo Akhmadov, and Valery Demidov; 14 pp.

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8-10

Suggested Actions to Reduce Irrigation Erosion in the Kyrgyz Republic
Payaziddin Joоshov, Kubanichbek Kulov, and Nadira Mavlyanova; 18 pp.

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8-11

Water and Land Management and Agricultural Policy in Support of Food Security: The Amu Darya Delta in Uzbekistan
Gulchekhra Khasankhanova, and Ajsylu Safarova; 17 pp.

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Governance, Institutions, and Macroeconomic Policies

While the term "food policy" is often interpreted to mean sectorial, micro, or meso policies, food systems are strongly influenced by macroeconomic policies, as illustrated by the cases in this section. Institutions enter into food systems in a variety of ways at local, national, and international levels, and institutional innovation is a critical element of effective policy design and implementation. The cases discuss these issues and the related role of governments, along with the impact of instability and armed conflict on food security and lessons for government action.

9-1

Linkages between Government Spending, Growth, and Poverty in Uganda and Tanzania
Shenggen Fan; 14 pp.

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9-2

Linkages between Government Spending, Growth, and Poverty in India and China
Shenggen Fan; 16 pp.

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9-4

The WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism and Developing Countries: The Brazil– U.S. Cotton Case
Fuzhi Cheng; 13 pp.

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9-7

9-8

Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policies, and the Agricultural Sector in Zambia
Danielle Resnick, and James Thurlow; 12 pp.

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9-10

Implementing a Decentralized National Food and Nutrition Security System in Brazil
Anne W. Kepple, Renato S. Maluf, and Luciene Burlandy; 15 pp.

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9-11

Brain Drain of Health Professionals in Tanzania
Adinan Juma, Allen G. Kangalawe, Elizabeth Dalrymple, and Tiwonge Kanyenda; 19 pp.

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Trade and Globalization Policies

The impact of globalization on food systems is of a very complex nature. The cases prepared for this section address the impact of trade and agricultural policies in both high- and low-income countries as well as the impact of other elements of globalization such as the international expansion and concentration of the private food sector. These cases discuss the impact of trade and domestic agricultural policies in OECD countries on low-income countries and low-income people, available policy options for alleviating these negative consequences, and the effect of tariff escalation and non-tariff trade barriers.

10-1

Globalization and the Nutrition Transition: A Case Study
Corinna Hawkes; 16 pp.

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10-2

Producer Subsidies and Decoupling in the European Union and the United States
Maria Skovager Jensen, and Henrik Zobbe; 16 pp.

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10-3

U.S. Farm Policy Reforms: Domestic and International Implications
Fuzhi Cheng; 12 pp.

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10-4

10-5

The Impact of U.S. Subsidies on West African Cotton Production
Andrea R. Woodward; 12 pp.

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10-6

Trade Liberalization in South Korea’s Rice Sector: Some Policy Implications
Sukjong Hong, and Fuzhi Cheng; 12 pp.

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10-10

Meeting Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Standards: What Can China Do?
Fuzhi Cheng; 14 pp.

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10-12

Vietnam's Aquaculture Trade: Food Safety and Sanitation Issues
Le Ha Thanh, and Pham Hong Chuong; 13 pp.

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10-13

Miami Rice in Haiti: Virtue or Vice?
Erica Phillips, and Derrill D. Watson, II; 16 pp.

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10-14

Sustainable Development of Agro-Industrial Sector and Food Security of the Kyrgyz Republic in the Process of Integration into the Eurasian Economic Union
Ekaterina Yakubovich, and Zalina Yenikeyeva; 14 pp.

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Ethical Aspects of Food Systems

Many of the cases in the sections above discuss the ethical aspects of food systems. The case prepared for this section discusses policy options for implementing the human right to freedom from hunger in the context of experience from India. Cases on other aspects of ethics and the food systems will be developed in the future.

11-1

Food Policy and Social Movements: Reflections on the Right to Food Campaign in India
Vivek Srinivasan, and Sudha Narayanan; 13 pp.

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