Energy Essay 2014

What makes “Mind and Cosmos” worth reading is that Dr. Nagel is an atheist, who rejects the creationist idea of an intelligent designer. The answers, he believes, may still be found through science, but only by expanding it further than it may be willing to go.

“Humans are addicted to the hope for a final reckoning,” he wrote, “but intellectual humility requires that we resist the temptation to assume that the tools of the kind we now have are in principle sufficient to understand the universe as a whole.”

Dr. Nagel finds it astonishing that the human brain — this biological organ that evolved on the third rock from the sun — has developed a science and a mathematics so in tune with the cosmos that it can predict and explain so many things.

Neuroscientists assume that these mental powers somehow emerge from the electrical signaling of neurons — the circuitry of the brain. But no one has come close to explaining how that occurs.

That, Dr. Nagel proposes, might require another revolution: showing that mind, along with matter and energy, is “a fundamental principle of nature” — and that we live in a universe primed “to generate beings capable of comprehending it.” Rather than being a blind series of random mutations and adaptations, evolution would have a direction, maybe even a purpose.

“Above all,” he wrote, “I would like to extend the boundaries of what is not regarded as unthinkable, in light of how little we really understand about the world.”

Dr. Nagel is not alone in entertaining such ideas. While rejecting anything mystical, the biologist Stuart Kauffman has suggested that Darwinian theory must somehow be expanded to explain the emergence of complex, intelligent creatures. And David J. Chalmers, a philosopher, has called on scientists to seriously consider “panpsychism” — the idea that some kind of consciousness, however rudimentary, pervades the stuff of the universe.

Some of this is a matter of scientific taste. It can be just as exhilarating, as proposed in “Wonderful Life,” to consider the conscious mind as simply a fluke, no more inevitable than the human appendix or a starfish’s five legs. But it doesn’t seem so crazy to consider alternate explanations.

Heading off in another direction, a new book by the physicist Max Tegmark suggests that a different ingredient — mathematics — needs to be admitted into science as one of nature’s irreducible parts. In fact, he believes, it may be the most fundamental of all.

In a well-known 1960 essay, the physicist Eugene Wigner marveled at “the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics” in explaining the world. It is “something bordering on the mysterious,” he wrote, for which “there is no rational explanation.”

The best he could offer was that mathematics is “a wonderful gift which we neither understand nor deserve.”

Dr. Tegmark, in his new book, “Our Mathematical Universe: My Quest for the Ultimate Nature of Reality,” turns the idea on its head: The reason mathematics serves as such a forceful tool is that the universe is a mathematical structure. Going beyond Pythagoras and Plato, he sets out to show how matter, energy, space and time might emerge from numbers.

But is mathematics, for all its power, really the root of reality? Or is it a product of the human mind? Reviewing Dr. Tegmark’s book in The New York Times Book Review, the mathematician Edward Frenkel noted that only a small part of the vast ocean of mathematics appears to describe the real world. The rest seems to be about nothing other than itself. That purity is part of its appeal.

I came away from these books pulled in opposite directions. Here on this planet during the 5,000 orbits since people began leaving marks on papyrus or clay, we’ve come far in describing the vast beyond. Or at least it seems that way. But maybe decades or millenniums from now — here or someplace yet to be imagined — science on Earth, circa 2014, will look like nothing more than a good start.

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A family pledges one of the largest private gifts ever for scientific research; why we may never have all the pieces necessary for a theory of everything; sleep apnea tests can now be taken from the comfort of your bed.

Fossil fuel is a term used to describe a group of energy sources that were formed when ancient plants and organisms were subject to intense heat and pressure over millions of years.

FOSSIL FUELS 

Definition

Fossil fuel is a term used to describe a group of energy sources that were formed from ancient plants and organisms during the Carboniferous Period, approximately 360 to 286 million years ago[1]California Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.html, prior to the age of dinosaurs.

At that time, the land was covered with swamps filled with microorganisms, marine organisms, trees, ferns and other large leafy plants. As the organisms and plants died, they sank to the bottom of the swamps and oceans and formed layers of a spongy material called peat. Over millions of years, the peat was covered by sand, clay, and other minerals, which converted the peat into sedimentary rock. Over time, different types of fossil fuels formed, depending on the combination of organic matter present, how long it was buried, and what temperature and pressure conditions existed when they were decomposing.[2]US Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossil

US Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossil

 

There are three major types of fossil fuels:[3]US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/  

  • Coal is formed from ferns, plants and trees which hardened due to pressure and heat
  • Oilis formed from smaller organisms, like zooplankton and algae. Intense amounts of pressure caused this complex organic matter to decompose into oil. 
  • Natural Gasundergoes the same process as oil; however the process is longer and subject to higher amounts of heat and pressure, causing further decomposition.

Context

Fossil fuels are the world’s dominant energy source, making up 82% of the global energy supply.[4]International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014 Non-OECD countries hold the majority of proven reserves for all fossil fuels.[5]BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014: http://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp-country/de_de/PDFs/brochures/BP-statistical-review-of-world-energy-2014-full-report.pdf These energy sources have powered, and continue to power, the industrialization of nations. They have a variety of applications, from electricity production to transport fuel.  Moreover, fossil fuels are necessary for the production of a variety of common products, such as paints, detergents, polymers (including plastics), cosmetics and some medicines.

Some fossil fuels, such as coal, are an abundant and cheap form of energy. Others, like oil, have a variable cost depending on geographic location. For this reason, geopolitical issues arise due to the geographic allocation of these highly valuable resources.

Fossil fuels are non-renewable resources, as they have taken millions of years to form. Once these resources are used, they will not be replenished. Moreover, fossil fuels are the largest source of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas which contributes to climate change, and their production causes both environmental and human health impacts. These concerns are triggering the world to look at alternate sources of energy that are both less harmful and renewable. Additionally, the gradual depletion of conventional fossil fuel reserves has led companies to develop more challenging reserves.  These unconventional resources usually have higher production costs and a greater risk of environmental impact. 

 

 

References

  1. ^California Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.html
  2. ^US Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossil
  3. ^US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ 
  4. ^International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014
  5. ^BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 

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